The intricate process of normal eye development, which occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy, involves several genes. When these genes make mistakes (called mutations), a serious eye condition can develop. Ophthalmic genetics is a much-needed and rapidly expanding field around the world. Ethnic variety, along with a high degree of consanguinity, has resulted in a global epidemic of genetic disorders. Inherited retinal disease (IRD) is the most common cause of blindness in people in their working years. Molecular diagnosis has been sped up thanks to advances in molecular genetic approaches, such as focused gene panel analysis and the use of next-generation sequencing methodologies. Likewise, developments in ocular imaging and visual function tests have enhanced our understanding of natural history, which is critical for evaluating treatment outcomes in clinical trials of potential IRD medicines.