3rd Edition of

International Ophthalmology Conference

March 20-22, 2025 | Madrid, Spain

IOC 2022

Jeffrey Freedman

Speaker at International  Ophthalmology Conference 2022 - Jeffrey Freedman
Emeritus at State University of New York, United States
Title : The Living Bleb. Clinical Application of Cytokines and Bleb Survival


The pathophysiology of blebs, in relation to glaucoma implant surgery, and the reasons for success or failure of the blebs will be presented. The importance of intraocular pressure on the success of the bleb will be emphasized.The presentation will discuss the mechanisms whereby blebs, formed by glaucoma surgical tube implants, fail. The audience will understand the significance of the preoperative intra-ocular pressure , and thereby, the cytokine levels in the aqueous forming the bleb. Lowering the pressure prior to allowing aqueous to reach the plate surface will demonstrate how the deleterious effects of pressure on bleb failure can be avoided.  The choice of implant, valved or non-valved, will be shown to be important in relation to the effectiveness of bleb survival. Thus the presentation, will present why the immediate preoperative intraocular pressure needs to be decreased , why choice of implant can effect outcome, and how modifications in respect to implant use, can be utilized to make the effect of the implant more successful. The presentation does not suggest further improvement in design of the implant, as a number of iterations of the original Molteno implant are already available. The pathophysiology of the bleb thereby remains the most important aspect of success or failure of the bleb.


Dr Freedman received his medical degree from The Medical School of the Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg South Africa. In 1964, and his PhD in Medicine from the same university in 1975. He received the degree of "Fellow of the College of Surgeons South Africa" in 1969, and "Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh " in 1971 both  degrees by written and practical examinations. He has published over 80 research articles, and is Professor (HS) T Emeritus at State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center.