Title : Causes of Papilledema in Paediatric age group: A11-year hospital-based study in North-Eastern India
Purpose: Eye is the window to the brain & papilledema is the most ominous neuro ophthalmic sign. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the various causes of papilledema.
Methods:170 patients having papilledema from Jan2011 to Dec2021 were studied prospectively & followed up to 3months.
Results: Cases were divided into 3 age groups: (0-3) years, (4-12) years & (13-18) years.
43.52% of cases were infection, 32.94% space occupying lesion (SOL), 10.59% otogenic intracranial complication, 8.23% pseudotumor cerebri & 4.70% hypertension.
Among the infective group 56.76% tuberculosis,27.02% viral, 12.16% bacterial &4.05% of fungal etiology.
Among SOL 30.35% tumors,30.35% tuberculoma, 17.85% intracranial hematoma,10.71% brain abscess &10.71% neurocysticercosis.
While analyzing the incidence of various etiology in different age group it was seen that in 0-3yrs commonest etiology of papilledema was infection and in 4-12 yrs. Commonest etiology was space occupying lesion. In 13 -18yrs the incidence of various etiology was almost same.
Earliest regression of papilledema was seen at the end of one month & it was maximum in cases with infective origin.
26 cases died during the study period due to disease. The mortality rate was highest in cases with tumors. The mortality rate in the infective cases was relatively less.
Conclusion: Important findings were
1. tuberculosis as the most common cause of papilledema either in the form of infection or space occupying lesion.
2. middle ear infection due high-altitude location of North east India.
3. neurocysticercosis as study population is tribal dominated.
This study will guild us in early management of papilledema cases in underdeveloped area.
Audience Take Away:
At the end of this presentation the audience will learn the common causes papilledema in paediatric age group in an evidence-based manner.
As papilledema is the most ominous neuro-ophthalmic sign, the diagnosis of papilledema carries with it a heavy responsibility. Knowledge of common causes of papilledema in a certain geographical area will guide the audience in early diagnosis & cost-effective management.
This research shows while ascertain etiology of papilledema in certain under developed area special importance should be given to the geographical location of the area & life style of the study population.